KompoZer User Guide - Appendices 1 - 5
This Glossary defines terms as used in this document. As far as possible, when terms used also occur in the HTML or CSS specifications, they have the same meanings as in those specifications. In such cases more precise definitions may be obtained there.
|HTML 4.01 Specification||http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/cover.html|
Doctype abbreviates 'Document type Declaration' which tells a browser which 'Document type definition' (DTD) to use to interpret a page. The Doctype also includes the URL of a file containing the DTD details.
The Doctype must appear on the first line of code for a page.
Note Actually on an XHTML page an XML declaration may precede this but this can result in problems with some browsers. KompoZer does not insert this declaration. Files without an XML declaration use UTF-8 character coding.
Note Where the icon occurs click it to reveal differences in the behaviour of Nvu if this interests you.
The Doctypes supported by KompoZer are
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
To set the Doctype for a new file:
On the menu bar click File > New and check the appropriate boxes.
In HTML 4.01 strict, elements and attributes which are dedicated to presentation are deprecated in favour of CSS. Therefore, HTML 4.01 strict is actually a trimmed version of HTML 4.01 and is likely to be supported by a larger number of user agents and media. The features which have been trimmed out can be replaced using CSS so that no functionality is lost.
The benefits of clear separation of content from presentation thanks to CSS implementation are:
Note 1: See Max Design article Why use CSS to separate content from presentation?
Note 2: "Experience has shown that separating the structure of a document from its presentational aspects reduces the cost of serving a wide range of platforms, media, etc., and facilitates document revisions." Ref HTML 4.01 specification
Beginners to web authoring often ask 'Which doctype declaration should I use?' That is a good and reasonable question.
When working on pre-existing documents KompoZer is capable of working with any of the doctypes supported and you may continue to use these if you want to avoid upgrading to a preferred format.
When creating a new document my recommendation is to use HTML 4.01 strict doctype.
I do not recommend XHTML 1.0
doctype declarations (transitional or strict) unless you know
that you need to serve your web page as content type
Explorer 6 and Internet Explorer 7 will not serve a document as content
application/xhtml+xml when the proper
content type for XHTML should be
Further explanation on why XHTML is not recommended – at least at present – would go beyond the scope of this User Guide.
People who want to know more on this issue are recommended to read the following resources:
Even if you are working on an existing document you may consider that it is worth whatever additional work would be required to upgrade to using the HTML 4.01 strict doctype. The benefits of using web standards (W3C recommendations and language specifications regarding web page authoring) are numerous, important, often underestimated and often misunderstood.
KompoZer can create pages using any of these doctypes. Pages created from Templates are always generated using HTML 4.01 Transitional doctype.
Note It may be possible to edit a template external to KompoZer and change the doctype so that pages created from it use the corresponding Doctype. I have not tested this.
HTML pages created will offer, on saving, the "html"
extension. XHTML pages will also offer "xhtml" extension. Regarding
XHTML pages, the choice is important as an xhtml file extension will
lead browsers to serve such document as content type
If you save your XHTML document with the "html" file extension, then
your XHTML document will be served as text/html.
KompoZer can open and edit pages with any of these doctypes. The doctype is not editable but KompoZer will not change any doctype encountered.
When creating and editing documents, KompoZer will generate code which is appropriate to the doctype declared using only appropriate elements and attributes. This means that some features may be disabled or be inaccessible depending on the type of document encountered. Typically this may necessitate the use of a CSS style to obtain some effect which is not accessible using an HTML attribute.
KompoZer cannot convert from one doctype to another so, if the doctype is not consistent with the code on the page the result will be unreliable. It is because KompoZer cannot convert doctypes that I suggest that you continue with the existing doctype when working on pre-existing documents . If you do wish to convert a page it is possible to take content from one document to another with a different doctype by cutting and pasting in normal view. However, when you paste, you must use the 'Paste without formatting' option and reapply all the formats needed. Whether or not you take this option will depend on circumstances.
While browsers will render pages irrespective of the doctype, detailed differences in response occur.
switching by David Hammond has the results of some excellent
research and documenting the responses of all the main current browsers.
Information for older browsers was provided by Henri Sivonen.
CSS Enhancements in Internet Explorer 6 gives fuller details for this browser.
Note Where the icon occurs click it to reveal differences in the behaviour of Nvu if this interests you.
Installing Nvu is straightforward.
The program may be downloaded from KompoZer's web site.
The site does not offer an installer but J C Steele has
provided one for KompoZer 0.7.10. It is available from
With an installer available:
If no installer is available:
The program may now be run by clicking the shortcut. The first time it is run it will create a ‘profile’. (See next section.)
Note With earlier versions of KompoZer you were advised not to run Nvu and KompoZer simultaneously. This no longer applies.
It is not expected that Nvu will be updated after version 1.0 but you may need to upgrade from an earlier version or possibly to repair a broken installation.
Nvu stores a number of settings in files located in the 'Profiles' folder. KompoZer does the same thing and maintains a separate, independent profiles folder.
The profile includes:
The Nvu team recommend that this folder be deleted prior to installing a new version of Nvu. This means that these settings will be lost and have to be re-entered following the new installation. It is advisable to follow this recommendation.
The default profiles folder is located at
(i.e. Something like
Settings\<login settings>\Application Data\Nvu).
(Similarly for KompoZer.)
The procedure for updating is therefore (applicable to Nvu only)
There are a small number of extensions available for KompoZer including alternative spelling dictionaries.
Extensions are installed differently from normal programs. the procedure is as follows:
If you have extensions installed you may sometimes wish to run KompoZer without the extension. For this you need to have one profile which has the extension installed and one without. Managing profiles explains how to achieve this.
In order to manage profiles you must start KompoZer with profiles enabled.
To enable profiles:
If you use more than one shortcut route you have can set others in the same way.
When you launch the program you will now get a window like that shown on the right.
You can launch the program from here but you may prefer first to add other profiles.
To add a profile:
You will be offered the opportunity of giving the profile a more meaningful name. You will also have the opportunity of selecting where you wish to store the files for the profile. If you change this to somewhere in My Documents it may be easier to manage your routine backups.
Note You should create a dedicated folder for each profile.
You can also rename and delete profiles as shown in the second figure.
Before you add any additional profiles the ‘Default profile’ will be the profile that you were previously using. It will include all the customisations that you had prepared.
Any additional profiles added will be created in a ‘virgin’ state with none of your history included. You will therefore have to add any site manager and publishing settings that you wish. Because of this you may prefer to set up additional profiles for specific purposes and retain others for more basic functions.
[I am grateful to Neil Parks on the Wysi Forum for some of the above information.]
Section 188.8.131.52 Definition lists added.
PDF download page (kz-pdf.htm) - Warning against excessive download added.
Appendix 4.1 - Change link to installer file
Minor changes to Index and Postscript
Clarification in 10.2.3
Minor changes to Sections 4.2.3, 184.108.40.206, 4.3
Sections 3.6.1 - Amended, A4.1 Installer -
Added, A7.3.3. - Added, Minor changes throughout.
pdf version of KompoZer User Guide added.
Updated to reflect KompoZer 0.7.10 which involves changes to the way CaScadeS works. Main changes to section 4 but references to Nvu now mainly hidden to make KompoZer methods clearer.
Now incorporates KompoZer
Pages are printable
Appendices 6 (Character encoding) and 7 (Printing pages) added.
Profiles explained and more details of spelling.
Links to translations of each page
Many minor changes throughout.
Section 3.7.2 - Amended
A3.2 - Note amended
A number of minor corrections throughout
Minor changes 3.6, 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, 6, 3.3.2, 22.214.171.124,
126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, 4.2.3,
4.4, 4.5, 4.5.1, 4.5.2, A3.4
Rewrite 3.6.5 (subject change), 9
Corrections 3.10.7, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124
Revisions 3.10.5, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, 4.2.1, 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, 4.5
Section 3.7.2 - Rewritten (was completely wrong), Minor addition 3.4.2
Minor corrections - Clarification in 3.7.2, Formatting error section 4.5.2, Wrong figure and associated text Section 7
Based on Nvu 1.0
Section 3.2.1 - Document types -- rewritten.
Section 3.4.2 - Notes reorganised, 2 & 3 added.
Section 3.4.4 - Lists – rewritten
Section 3.4.7 - Special characters – enhanced.
Section 3.4.8 - Spelling – rewritten
Section 3.5.2 - Positioning images -- revised
Minor changes. 3.6.1, 22.214.171.124, 3.16, 9.1.
Warnings no longer applicable deleted – Sections 3.4.4, 3.5.2
Based on Nvu 1.0PR
Using different doctypes
incorporated - mainly section 3.2
Guide uses Strict doctype.
Top menu and linked pages added.
Section 3.10 - Forms - rewritten.
Section 3.13 - Table of Contents - added.
Section 4.2.5 - Style selectors - added.
Section 7 - Templates - largely rewritten.
Appendix 3 - Doctypes - added.
Appendix 4 - Updating Nvu - added.
As a result of above some renumbering has occurred.
Throughout, smaller editorial and styling improvements have been incorporated.
First version available
directly via nvudev.org.
Translations into French and Japanese commenced.
Section 9.2 on Toolbar Buttons added.
Section 4.6 on Styles Special Cases (Links, Class selectors) added.
Based on Nvu 0.9
Nvu 0.9 new or changed
features: Border Button (section 3.11), email
link (126.96.36.199), <div> element 4.5, set Icon size (9.1),
properties (188.8.131.52), HTML Source view renamed.
Previously omitted items added: Printing (3.3.3), Position grid (3.10.4), CaScadeS Beginners mode (184.108.40.206), Image sizing using Property window (3.5.2).
Clarifications or corrections to: Drag and drop (3.3), Comments (6), Sizing boxes refer to ‘Handles’, other minor items.
Based on Nvu 0.81
HTML version unframed.
Optimised for Mozilla-type browsers.
Section 3.6 on tables rewritten.
Section 3.10 Layers (previously Absolute positioning) expanded.
Section 7 Templates corrected and expanded.
Throughout - extensive re-work, minor corrections, clarifications and expansions.
Warnings differentiated from notes.
The writing style of the guide is being altered progressively but still incomplete.
Based on Nvu 0.7
First version available in both
HTML and pdf formats
HTML version based on frames
Footnotes incorporated into main text
Major rewrites Sections 8 (Site Manager), 10 (Publishing)
Additional material Sections 3.4.6-7 (Text), 3.6.2 (Tables), 3.10 (Absolute positioning), 3.14 (HTML Editing).
Minor editorial changes throughout.